Vaginal discharge? Vaginal irritation? Odor? What to do? Vaginal infections are exceedingly common. In fact, they are so common that the majority of women will experience at least one in her lifetime. Vaginitis complaints are responsible for roughly 10% of doctor visits each year, amounting to nearly $10 million in annual costs.   Outlined below are the major causes of vaginal infections, associated complications, and how they are identified and treated.   The majority of vaginitis cases in women of childbearing age can be attributed to bacterial vaginosis (BV), yeast vaginitis, and trichomoniasis.   Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of infectious vaginitis, and is characterized by white, thin discharge with a fishy odor, and elevated vaginal pH that is often attributed to an imbalance of normal vaginal bacteria. Some women note symptoms are worse after intercourse or menses, while others experience no symptoms at all. It is important to treat symptomatic BV because this disruption in vaginal flora has been shown to increase risk for acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Additionally, BV can lead to poor pregnancy outcomes. Your provider can diagnose this condition after doing a pelvic exam and collecting a sample of vaginal fluid. Conventional treatment primarily includes oral or vaginal antibiotics. Natural agents such as boric acid suppositories, vitamin C suppositories, and very specific species of probiotics may be sufficient in some cases or may augment conventional treatment in other cases. Unfortunately, BV recurs in as many as 58% of women who were previously treated and experienced resolution. For these cases we can look to other factors that may influence the existence of BV like biofilms that can harbor bacteria, preventing adequate exposure to antibiotics. Additionally, douching, low vitamin D status, smoking, diet, and stress may play a role in development and recurrence of BV.   Yeast vaginitis is also known as vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and can cause symptoms of itching, burning, pain with intercourse, red and inflamed tissue, along with a yellow-white “cottage cheese” discharge. The most common culprits are Candida albicans (80–90 % of symptomatic cases), Candida glabrata (2–5 %), and Candida krusei (1-2 %).  VVC is one of the most common vaginal infections – responsible for 40-50 % of all vaginal infections. About 75% of reproductive aged women will experience at least one episode of VVC. Unfortunately, up to 50% of these women will develop a second infection of VVC and up to 5% will become recurrent cases.  Conventional treatment includes oral or local antifungal and restoration of the vaginal microbiota. In addition to conventional treatments, Naturopathic physicians may use botanical/nutraceutical antifungal agents to re-establish normal vaginal flora, as well as address gastrointestinal function and flora and...